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Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is a vascular condition characterised by narrowed arteries caused by a buildup of fatty plaque. It predominantly affects the legs and causes reduced blood flow, which manifests through symptoms like leg pain and cramping during physical activity.

Peripheral Vascular Disease

What you should know about Peripheral Arterial Disease

What is Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)?

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is a vascular condition characterised by the buildup of fatty deposits, or plaque, in the arteries, predominantly in the legs. This accumulation narrows the arteries, leading to reduced blood flow to the extremities.

What Are The Symptoms Of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)?

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) often manifests with the following symptoms:


  • Discomfort: Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the legs during physical activity.

  • Numbness or Weakness: Reduced sensation or weakness in the legs.

  • Coldness: Coolness in the lower leg or foot compared to the rest of the body.

  • Change in Skin Colour: Discolouration, often appearing pale or bluish.

  • Poor Wound Healing: Slow healing of wounds on the legs or feet.

  • Shiny Skin: The skin on the legs may appear shiny or thin.

  • Slow Hair Growth: Decreased hair growth on the legs and feet.

What Are The Risk Factors Of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)?

Several factors increase the risk of developing Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD). These include:


  • Smoking: Tobacco use is a significant risk factor for PAD.

  • Diabetes: Individuals with diabetes have an elevated risk of PAD.

  • Age: PAD risk increases with age, especially for those over 50.

  • High Blood Pressure: Hypertension contributes to arterial damage and PAD.

  • High Cholesterol: Elevated levels of cholesterol can lead to plaque formation in arteries.

  • Obesity: Excess weight puts added strain on the cardiovascular system.

  • Family History: A family history of vascular diseases increases the likelihood of PAD.

  • Inactive Lifestyle: Lack of regular physical activity is a notable risk factor.

  • Other Cardiovascular Conditions: A history of heart disease or stroke correlates with an increased risk of PAD.

How Can I Prevent Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)?

Preventing Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) involves:

  • Adopting a healthy lifestyle, including quitting smoking.

  • Managing diabetes.

  • Controlling blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

  • Maintaining a healthy weight.

  • Engaging in regular physical activity.


Regular medical check-ups to monitor and address potential risk factors are crucial for comprehensive vascular health.

How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Diagnosed (PAD)?

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is diagnosed through a combination of medical history assessment, physical examination, and specialised tests such as the Ankle-Brachial Index, ultrasound, angiography, or CT/MRI angiography. These diagnostic tools help evaluate blood flow, identify arterial narrowing, and provide a comprehensive understanding of vascular health, enabling timely intervention and effective management.


How is Peripheral Arterial Disease Treated?

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) treatment involves a multifaceted approach. Lifestyle modifications, including exercise, a healthy diet, and smoking cessation, play a pivotal role in managing symptoms. In more severe cases, angioplasty, a procedure to open narrowed arteries, may be recommended. Bypass surgery becomes an option for those unsuitable for angioplasty, creating an alternative pathway for improved blood flow.

Dr Desmond Ooi: Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) Treatment in Singapore

Dr. Desmond Ooi employs a tailored approach in treating Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), integrating lifestyle modifications, medication management, and, if necessary, invasive procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery. If you're dealing with concerns related to PAD, consider scheduling an appointment with Dr. Desmond Ooi for personalised and thoughtful care.

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